Dywersyfikacja współczesnej lewicy oraz prawicy… wokół sporów o politykę, państwo i instytucje

  • Rafał Chwedoruk Uniwersytet Warszawski


Globalization brought about the weakening of state institutions and delegitimisation of
politics in general. This was reflected in the programs of political parties. The article analyses
political parties’ programs of key European parties of the 21st century. The varied and
diverse approach to the phenomenon of politics was explained, with the antithesis being the
neoliberal depoliticization, economization and technocratization, as well as the antiliberal
revitalization of politics. The antithesis of nationalism-cosmopolitanism was also mentioned
for that purpose. The division into right wing and left wing nowadays turns out to be
substituted with a division into the supporters of maintaining the traditional politics, the role
of state and state institutions, and the supporters of further dismantle. Symbolically speaking
the opposing sides could be portrayed as advocates of “the Peace of Westphalia” order and
supporters of “New Middle Ages”.
Key words: politics, neoliberalism, New Middle Ages, Peace of Westphalia order, left wing,
right wing, state, institutions