Marksizm a abstrakcja jednostki ludzkiej: Adam Schaff oczami Ewalda Iljenkowa

  • Monika Woźniak Uniwersytet Warszawski


The article deals with the criticism that Evald Ilyenkov directed at the suggestion made
by Adam Schaff in Marksizm a jednostka ludzka (Marxism vs. an individual). The Soviet
Marxist accuses Schaff of being an elitist and criticizes his perception of changes in moral
development of the authority. Instead, Ilyenkov proposes that alienation in socialist countries
should be seen as a phenomenon tied to the relic of private property that can be overcome
only by actual socialization of possession. According to Ilyenkov, Schaff’s diagnosis of the
situation and solutions proposed by him stem from the lack of understanding of the Marxist
perception of a human being. Schaff’s abstract humanism presented by Ilyenkov appears to
be a result of the Polish philosopher’s affair with neo-positivism leading to the acceptance of a
individual’s dominance over the entirety of social relationships and understanding the human
as a collection of certain features common to every individual. In the article, said criticism
was connected with Ilyenkov’s philosophy of what is concrete. Ilyenkov’s polemic with
existentialist and neo-positivist tendencies in soviet philosophy of that time was provided
as background necessary for understanding the topic discussed. The main ideas of Ilyenkov’s
understanding of the Marxist humanism were also presented.
Key words: Marxist humanism, abstract-concrete, Evald Ilyenkov, Adam Schaff, alienation,